Category Archives: Uncategorized

Approach to papillary lesions of the breast

The terminology can be confusing. I’ll try to add pictures/diagrams to clarify at a later date. Feel free to ask questions. Intraductal papilloma – duct structures with broad fibrovascular cores lined by an myoepithelial and epithelial lining. May be solitary … Continue reading

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Benign Sclerosing Lesions of the Breast

The 3 entities are sclerosing adenosis, radial scar (complex sclerosing lesion) and microglandular adenosis. Sclerosis adenosis: A lobulocentric lesion (arise in association with the terminal duct lobular unit) with distorted obliterated glands with a myoepithelial layer in a fibrotic or … Continue reading

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Approach to testicular tumors

Classified as Germ cell tumors & Non germ cell tumours – 90% are germ cell tumors. Consider the serum marker levels HCG, AFP. Germ cell tumours are seminomatous and non seminomatous. Age is important when considering the differential. As a … Continue reading

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Soft tissue tumours with a myxoid appearance

Myxoid liposarcoma: Myxoid background Chicken wire like curvilinear blood vessels Lipoblasts Mucin pools When >5% round cell component- Myxoid round cell liposarcoma, t(12;16)(q13;p11) karyotype leading to fusion of DDIT3 (CHOP) with FUS (TLS). S100 positive younger patients Low grade fibromyxoid … Continue reading

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Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma vs Oncocytoma

Distinguishing between oncocytoma and the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a significant and relatively frequent problem for surgical pathologists. This is my experience of just such a case. Macroscopically radical nephrectomy showed a well circumscribed upper pole tumour … Continue reading

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Gleason Grading

The literature can be confusing about differences in the grading based on whether it’s a radical prostatectomy or TRUS biopsy and whether to go with the most common or the highest grade and the use of a tertiary grade. This appears to … Continue reading

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LAMN : low grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms

A controversial area and I refer you to the references. However for practical purposes LAMN (low grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms) are a distinct subset of appendiceal mucinous tumours that lack usual forms of destructive invasion into the appendiceal wall. Histologically … Continue reading

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